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预防医学  2019, Vol. 31 Issue (12): 1193-1199    DOI: 10.19485/j.cnki.issn2096-5087.2019.12.002
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某垃圾生态填埋场项目职业病危害风险预评价
阮晓颖1, 傅红1, 朱霖1, 俞爱青1, 王强1, 张磊1, 张美辨2
1.杭州市职业病防治院,浙江 杭州 310014;
2.浙江省疾病预防控制中心
Risk pre-assessment of occupational hazards in a waste ecological landfill project
RUAN Xiao-ying*, FU Hong, ZHU Lin, YU Ai-qing, WANG Qiang, ZHANG Lei, ZHANG Mei-bian
*Hangzhou Institute for the Prevention and Treatment of Occupational Disease,Hangzhou,Zhejiang 310014,China
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摘要 目的 采用类比法和综合指数法对某垃圾生态填埋场项目的职业病危害风险进行预评价,为完善防护措施和预防相关职业病危害提供依据。方法 选择与预评价项目在填埋场库容、处理规模、工艺、职业病危害因素和职业卫生管理等方面有可比性的企业开展现场劳动卫生学调查,并与职业接触限值比较,采用类比法对该项目建成后可能产生的职业病危害因素进行分析;采用综合指数法评价职业病危害风险。结果 类比企业的职业病危害因素主要为飞灰固化车间、填埋库区摊铺岗位、喷药岗位、污水处理区巡检岗位的硫化氢、氨、其他粉尘和噪声,电焊岗位的锰及其无机化合物、电焊烟尘和电焊弧光;除喷药岗位的噪声强度超过国家职业接触限值外,其他检测项目均合格。预评价项目职业病危害评估结果显示,在职业接触限值评价缺项的岗位中,摊铺压实岗位接触夏季高温,喷药岗位接触夏季高温、氯氰菊酯及机修岗位接触高温、臭氧和噪声为中等风险;在职业接触限值评价合格的岗位中,除摊铺压实及污水处理接触噪声为可忽略风险、摊铺压实及运输岗位接触其他粉尘为低风险外,其他均为中等风险;而职业接触限值评价不合格的喷药岗位接触噪声为中等风险。结论 摊铺压实、喷药、污水处理、机修岗位均存在中等风险职业病危害因素,综合指数法结合类比法能较全面地评估拟建设项目的职业病危害因素及其危害程度。
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阮晓颖
傅红
朱霖
俞爱青
王强
张磊
张美辨
关键词 垃圾填埋场职业病危害风险评估综合指数法    
AbstractObjective To pre-assess the occupational hazards in a waste ecological landfill project using comprehensive exposure index with analogy method,and to provide reference for improvement of protective measures and prevention of occupational diseases. Methods Some enterprises which were comparable with the project in landfill storage capacity,disposal scale,techniques,occupational hazards and occupational health management were selected to carry out on-site occupational health survey,and were evaluated by occupational exposure limits(OEL). The risk of occupational hazards of the project was assessed by analogy and comprehensive index method. Results The occupational hazards of analogous enterprises were hydrogen sulfide,ammonia,other dust and noise in ash solidification workshop,paving post in landfill area,spraying post and inspection post in sewage disposal area;manganese and its inorganic compounds,welding fume and arc light in welding post. Except for the noise intensity of spraying post exceeding the national OEL,the other items were qualified. The results of the pre-assessment of the project showed that in the posts with vacant OEL,the hazards of paving compaction post exposed to high temperature in summer,spraying post exposed to high temperature in summer,cypermethrin and machine repairing post exposed to heat,ozone and noise were at moderate risk;in the posts qualified by OEL,the hazards of paving compaction and sewage disposal posts exposed to noise were neglectable,paving compaction and transportation post exposed to other dust were at low risk,others were at moderate risk;unqualified spraying post exposed to noise was at moderate risk. Conclusion Medium-risk occupational hazards exist in paving compaction,spraying,sewage disposal and machine repairing posts. Comprehensive index method combined with analogy method can comprehensively achieve the occupational hazard pre-assessment of a proposed project.
Key wordsWaste landfill    Occupational hazard    Risk assessment    Comprehensive index method
收稿日期: 2019-05-17      出版日期: 2019-11-27
ZTFLH:  R135  
基金资助:浙江省医药卫生科技计划项目(2019hy543)
通信作者: 张磊,E-mail:719453275@qq.com   
作者简介: 阮晓颖,硕士,主管医师,主要从事职业卫生评价与职业医学工作
引用本文:   
阮晓颖, 傅红, 朱霖, 俞爱青, 王强, 张磊, 张美辨. 某垃圾生态填埋场项目职业病危害风险预评价[J]. 预防医学, 2019, 31(12): 1193-1199.
RUAN Xiao-ying, FU Hong, ZHU Lin, YU Ai-qing, WANG Qiang, ZHANG Lei, ZHANG Mei-bian. Risk pre-assessment of occupational hazards in a waste ecological landfill project. Preventive Medicine, 2019, 31(12): 1193-1199.
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